Propositions belonging to my PhD thesis

1. In a mature educational travel sector it becomes more important for both students and employers to know what competencies students acquire, in particular, and how these differ among various types of educational travel experiences (This thesis, chapter 1).


2. The development of professional competencies, cross-cultural competencies and an understanding of personal development are necessary to obtain ontological security in today’scompetitive, global and modern world (This thesis, chapter 3 and 4).


3. Students working in low income countries, or travelling from low to high power distance or collectivist countries find it the most difficult to develop cross-cultural competencies (This thesis, chapter 5 and 6).


4. A lack of realistic judgment, the short duration of the travel experience, retreat in an expat bubble, or subpar job factors in a foreign assignment, are among the factors, that can hamper the quality of learning of students who participate in aneducational travel programme (This thesis, chapter 3 and 8).


5. It is more difficult to learn perceptual competencies than learning behaviour-related competencies (This thesis, chapter 4 and 8).


6. Students who are more aware of the personal and subjective nature of their perceptions experience a more intense culture shock (This thesis, chapter 3 and 6).


7. A better design of learning programmes for educational travel experiences will spawn a generation of entrepreneurs who have the knowledge and confidence to more successfully do business abroad (inspired by van Gaal 2013).


8. Although economic development helps societies to adopt values that are increasingly rational, tolerant, trusting, and participatory, it is unlikely that a global culture will emerge as the influence of a country’sbroad cultural heritage (e.g. Protestantism, Catholicism and Communism) remains persistent (based on Inglehart & Baker 2000).


9. In modern society, human instincts and cultural traditions have lost their place. The result is an existential vacuum, an absence of meaning or purpose in life. The pursuance of pleasure or power cannot bring substance to this void, as they are merely empty quests. Growth is the result of the discovery of meaningful connections with others (Frankl 1969).


10. Trial and error is the only way to correctly judge your own aptitudes as outside influences (parents, siblings or friends), unconsciously and consciously, favour a more predictable image (based on Cent, 50 & Greene; Dennis 2006).


11. We are afraid that “absolute truth” is a very elusive concept, not only in social science, but also beyond (Minkov & Hofstede 2011: 17).


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